Simple WiFi relay board: a 4 channel DIY WiFi relay board (2)

Driving a 4 channel relay board with ESP8266-01 through MQTT

In a previous post I discussed making a WiFi relay inspired by the trouble  Ralph Bacon had with a single relayboard from Aliexpress. Given the fact that the Sonoff SV is relatively cheap (don’t forget the shipping cost though), and the WiFi relay at AliExpress even cheaper, it is a nickle and dime question whether it is wise to DIY such a project yourself. However, if you already have an unused ESP8266-01 and a relay lying around, basically all you need are some DuPont cables to connect the two (as shown in my previous post).

It becomes more interesting to use all 4 pins of an idle lying ESP8266-01 and add a 4 channel relay board.
The ESP8266-01 however is a bit particular with the pins it has,as two of the 4 I/O pins are the pins that need to be pulled HIGH on startup whereas the remaining two pins are the UART. Those UART pins can be used as GPIO, but the problem is that they do not know that, they need to be told that they are no longer UART but in fact GPIO. We do that with a special pinMode command (more about that later).

The relayboard I had in mind is a bit peculiar. I discussed the full workings of this board in an earlier post.

For now however suffice to say the inputs need an active LOW to  close the relays, while in rest, the inputs are HIGH.
That is in fact quite handy when using an ESP8266-01, as two of the 4 pins, GPIO0 and GPIO2, need to be pulled high on start-up, something this circuit actually does. It is necessary though to feed the board, including the optocoupler with 5Volt. The connections between the ESP8266-01 and the relay board are made as follows:

A reminder: the relayboard needs 5Volt and the ESP-01 needs 3.3Volt.  You could use an LDO like the AMS1117 3.3 to drop the 5Volt to 3.3 however,do not connect the two Vcc’s directly. Wait, let me emphasize that: DO NOT CONNECT THE Vcc OF THE ESP TO THE VCC OF THE RELAY BORD, JUST DONT!!!!

The full board
The ESP8266-01 adapter board

The program

For the program I followed the structure that is used by computourist with regard to the use of MQTT messages.
The idea behind that is that commands going from MQTT broker to the node are called ‘southbound’  (‘sb’), while the ones going to the broker (so usually the ‘ state’) are called ‘northbound’ (‘nb’). The specific functions in the node are addressed as numbered devices.
This has advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage being that you get codes like: “home/sb/node01/dev17” rather than something like: “home/cmd/wifirelay/relay1“.
Also the handling of the incoming MQTT is bound to a specified length, so altering it needs to be done with some consideration.
The advantages are that the handling of the code is easier and in fact extending the code with more functions is fairly easy.
What happens in fact is that once a subscribed MQTT code comes in, it is stripped to a its last two digits. These digits define the function it fulfills.
The Payload can be “ON”, “OFF”, “READ”, or a number, depending on the function chosen. The “READ”  payload reads and returns the state of the specific function (‘device’)  that is being read. Some ‘devices’ -as for instance the IP number or the MAC address, can only be read and not ‘set’.

The full list of devices is as follows:
00 uptime: read uptime in minutes
01 interval: read/set transmission interval for push messages
02 RSSI: read WiFi signal strength
03 version: read software version
05 ACK: read/set acknowledge message after a ‘set’ request

10 IP: Read IP address
11 SSID: Read SSID
12 PW: Read Password

16 read/set relay1 output
17 read set relay2 output
18 read set relay3 output
19 read set relay4 output

92 error: tx only: device not supported
91 error: tx only: syntax error
99 wakeup: tx only: first message sent on node startup

As I mentioned earlier, the UART pins need to be told that they should behave like GPIO pins. That can be done with the statement:

However, this will not work when there are any hardware serial statements left (such as Serial.print, Serial.begin)
So in order to control the relays from e.g. OpenHAB, this is what you add to your itemsfile:

Switch rel1 "WiFi relay 1 [%s]" (GF_Corridor) { mqtt="[mosquitto:home/sb/node01/dev17:command:*:default]" }
Switch rel2 "WiFi relay 2 [%s]" (GF_Corridor) { mqtt="[mosquitto:home/sb/node01/dev18:command:*:default]" }
Switch rel3 "WiFi relay 3 [%s]" (GF_Corridor) { mqtt="[mosquitto:home/sb/node01/dev19:command:*:default]" }
Switch rel4 "WiFi relay 4 [%s]" (GF_Corridor) { mqtt="[mosquitto:home/sb/node01/dev16:command:*:default]" }

this will render the following menu:

The program can be downloaded here. FYI, I trimmed down an existing, bigger program of mine. I left a bit of code here and there that might not be of immediate use in this project, but may come in handy if you want to use the code on a Wemos.

  • relayboard 1.80 euro
  • ESP8266-01 1.45 euro
  • 5 and 3.3Volt module 0.40ct

If you are using a different relay board that does not have it’s inputs pulled high in rest, then you need to add 10k pull-ups on GPIO 0 and GPIO2