ESP8266 with webserver-MQTT-Emoncms-Thingspeak-OTA

The graph shows that  when in automode, the humidifier is switched on when the  humidity  goes  2 degrees (the hysteresis) under the Setpoint
The graph shows that when in automode, the humidifier is switched on when the humidity goes 2 degrees (the hysteresis) under the Setpoint

On Github, Krzysztof has published a truly excellent series of articles regarding the use of an ESP8266 that reads a humidity sensor and publishes the data on a personal webserver, as well as on emoncms (an energymonitoring cloud) and allows to  take action depending on the reading of the  sensor, either manually or automatically and to do that via a webserver, or via MQTT or OpenHAB.
Anyone who is interested in this subject should surely read his  set of articles that starts basically from scratch and keeps adding functionality.

As I am not really partial to emoncms, but more of a Thingspeak user, I decided to add a Thingspeak module to his program.
As a base I used this program.
To add Thingspeak functionality do the following:
under the section: Emoncms configuration add:

//
// Thingspeak configuration
//
const char* thingspeakServer = "api.thingspeak.com";
const char* writeAPIKey = "yourThingspeakWriteApi";
// function prototypes required by Arduino IDE 1.6.7
void  sendDataToThingspeak(void);

in the main loop (thus in void loop(void) )
above (or below) sendDataToEmoncms();
add: sendDataToThingspeak();

Add a tab called “Thingspeak” and add there the following:

void  sendDataToThingspeak(void)
{
// make TCP connections
WiFiClient client;//this one is probably not necessary
const int httpPort = 80;
if (!client.connect(thingspeakServer, httpPort)) {
return;
}

String url = "/update?key=";
url += writeAPIKey;
url += "&field1=";
url += String(humidity);
url += "&field2=";
url += String(humiditySetPoint );
url += "&field3=";
url += String(humidifier);
url += "&field4=";
url += String(autoMode);

url += "\r\n";

// Send request to the server
client.print(String("GET ") + url + " HTTP/1.1\r\n" +
"Host: " + thingspeakServer + "\r\n" +
"Connection: close\r\n\r\n");
}

Ofcourse one still needs to setup a Thingspeak account, but that is well known how I presume. One also needs to setup an Emoncms account, buthat is well described in the series of articles, or one can decide to delete that functionality.
For MQTT I have used a public broker, but one can decide to set it up on say a Raspberry Pi

Adding a PCF 8591 ADC/DAC to ESP8266-01

ad-da-converter-moduleThe ESP8266-01 is a great WiFi enabled  microcontroller but it only has 4 I/O pins broken out. Fortunately it does support I2C protocol so in spite of  the low number of pins, there still is a lot of hardware that can be added.
As the ESP8266-01 has no analog inputs at all, adding an ADC to it is something I wanted to do. After all,  sensors as LDR or NTC are still analog.
The PCF8591 is such an ADC: it is  a single-chip, single‑supply low‑power 8‑bit CMOS data acquisition device with four analog inputs, one analog output and a serial I²C‑bus interface. Three address pins A0, A1 and A2 are used for programming the hardware address, allowing the use of up to eight devices connected to the I²C‑bus without additional hardware. I doubt whether I need more than 8 of those chips. Lets just start with one. Although one can get the individual chip, I have chosen for a module that actually already has some sensors on it:

  • AIN0 – Jumper P5 – Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)
  • AIN1 – Jumper P4 – Thermistor
  • AIN2 – Not connected
  • AIN3 – Jumper P6 – Potentiometer

pcf8591-circ
The I2C address of the PCF8591 is determined by the pins A0-A2. As they are close to the Ground pin, let’s start with grounding them (as they are on the module).
pcf8591adresThe address is 1001A2A1A0. With A2-A0 being LOW, that is 1001000=0x48.

base A2A1A0 Hex Dec
1001 000 48 72
1001 001 49 73
1001 010 4A 74
1001 011 4B 75
1001 100 4C 76
1001 101 4D 77
1001 110 4E 78
1001 111 4F 79

In some programs you will see the address as “0x90>>1” Which is 48 as well. The “0x90” counts the LSB of the 8 bit address, which is the R/W bit. With the Write Bit Low (=active) the full address is 10010000=0x90, but the rightshift 1 removes the LSB again, making it 0x48.
As it is not my intention to explain the full innerworkings of the PCF8591, but just to show it is working with the ESP8266-01, I will skip a full technical discussion. For now it is enough to know that the PCF8591 can be read byte for byte, but it can also be read in ‘burst mode’, in which we read the 4 analog values all at once. The program I present is burstmode with autoincrement of the address. The reason we read 5 bytes instead of 4 is because the first byte contains old data. As the datasheet states in paragraph 8.4: “The first byte transmitted in a read cycle contains the conversion result code of the previous read cycle.”

#include "Wire.h"
int PCF8591=0x48; // I2C bus address
byte ana0, ana1, ana2, ana3;
void setup()
{
 Wire.pins(0,2);// just to make sure
 Wire.begin(0,2);// the SDA and SCL
}
void loop()
{
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x04); // control byte: reads ADC0 then auto-increment
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 5);
 ana0=Wire.read();// throw this one away
 ana0=Wire.read();
 ana1=Wire.read();
 ana2=Wire.read();
 ana3=Wire.read();
}

Obviously when you have these values read you will need to do something with them: print them out, put them on yr own webpage or upload them to e.g. Thingspeak
we can do that as follows:

#include  // ESP8266WiFi.h library
#include "Wire.h"
int PCF8591=0x48; // I2C bus address
byte ana0, ana1, ana2, ana3;

const char* ssid     = "YourNetworkSSID";
const char* password = "YourPassword";
const char* host = "api.thingspeak.com";
const char* writeAPIKey = "YourWriteAPI";

void setup() {
  // Initialize sensor
 Wire.pins(0,2);// just to make sure
 Wire.begin(0,2);// the SDA and SCL

//  Connect to WiFi network
  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
  }
}

void loop() {
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x04); // control byte: reads ADC0 then auto-increment
 Wire.endTransmission(); // end tranmission
 Wire.requestFrom(PCF8591, 5);
 ana0=Wire.read();
 ana0=Wire.read();
 ana1=Wire.read();
 ana2=Wire.read();
 ana3=Wire.read();

// make TCP connections
  WiFiClient client;
  const int httpPort = 80;
  if (!client.connect(host, httpPort)) {
    return;
  }

  String url = "/update?key=";
  url+=writeAPIKey;
  url+="&field1=";
  url+=String(ana0);
  url+="&field2=";
  url+=String(ana1);
  url+="&field3=";
  url+=String(ana2);
  url+="&field3=";
  url+=String(ana3);
  url+="\r\n";
  
  // Request to the server
  client.print(String("GET ") + url + " HTTP/1.1\r\n" +
               "Host: " + host + "\r\n" + 
               "Connection: close\r\n\r\n");
    delay(1000);
}

Writing to the DAC is as follows:

#define PCF8591 (0x48) // I2C bus address
void setup()
{
 Wire.pins(0,2);// just to make sure
 Wire.begin(0,2);
}
void loop()
{
 for (int i=0; i<256; i++)  { Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591);  Wire.write(0x40); // control byte b1000000  Wire.write(i);  Wire.endTransmission(); }  for (int i=255; i>=0; --i)
 {
 Wire.beginTransmission(PCF8591); // wake up PCF8591
 Wire.write(0x40); // turn on DAC b1000000
 Wire.write(i); 
 Wire.endTransmission();
 }
}

Calculations
A the board normally uses the 3.3v supply as the reference voltage:
The input voltage is determined with:
vIn = value * (3.3 / 255)
and the output voltage is:
vOut = (value / 255) * 3.3
or to find the value for a given voltage:
value = (vOut / 3.3) * 255

So if for instance I would write  the value of 50 to the DAC. The voltage would be: 0.64V
In order to test that, I hooked up Aout to the A0 of an ESP 8266-12 and found a value of 192.
To calculate that to a voltage that is  (192/1023)*3.3=0.162V. I guess that is close enough.
Oddly though when I hooked up the Aout to AIN2 or AIN1 that didn seem to give reliable readings. A value of 50 written to Aout should give a value of 50 on AIN, but oddly it didnt

In my version of the board the NTC channel only varied between 255 and 254, changing the temperatuur didnt seem to have any influence, but removing jumper P4 made the value go all over the place so i presume the channel id ok, and only the NTC might not be OK.

Using the 4 pins of the ESP8266-01

esp8266_henhouseThe limited number (4) of GPIO pins on the ESP8266-01 may seem like an obstacle, for any serious application.

Yet if one uses the pins in a smart way it is very well possible to do a lot with only those 4 pins.
In some of my recent postings, I have shown the use of a DHT11 a DS18B20, an OLED, an RTC and a BMP180 with the ESP8266-01.
In this posting I set out to use 4 sensors and a display, while also uploading the acquired data to Thingspeak. It actually is expanding on a project of monitoring the atmosphere in and around my chicken coop. Yes, you could call this a weatherstation, but it is just to illustrate the use of the 4 pins, you could easily make something else this way

I will be using 2 pins for I2C (BMP180 and OLED)
1 pin for 2 DS18B20 sensors via the OneWire protocol
1 pin for the DHT11
Although the ESP8266-01 now has all its pins used, I can still add more sensors (or actuators) through the OneWire protocol and/or via the I2C protocol.

So, what do we need:
BOM

  • ESP8266-01
  • 2x DS18B20
  • 1x DHT11
  • 1x BMP180
  • OLED (optional)

and ofcourse a breadboard, a 3.3 V PSU and some breadboard wires and a Thingspeak acount

Just some remarks regarding the BOM:

  • ESP8266-01
    Obviously the project is about utilizing the limited pins of the ESP8266-01, but if you still need to buy one, you could consider an ESP8266-12 that has more pins
  • DHT11
    A cheap all purpose humidity and temperature sensor. It is not hugely accurate but it will do. If you still need to buy one, you could opt for the DHT22 that is supposedly more accurate, but you could also opt for the AMS2321. That is a sort of DHT22 that is suitable for I2C, thus freeing another pin
  • BMP180
    measures temperature and Airpressure. It is the successor of the BMP085, but it also now has some suvessors itself. There is the (cheaper) BMP280, but you could also opt for the BME280 that measures temperature, airpresure AND humidity. That way you can save on the DHT/AMS sensor
  • OLED
    I just used that so I quickly could see whether the sensors were read, but you could just as well check it on Thingspeak. The OLED is too small anyway to print all the read values

The circuit

weerstationThe 4 pins of the ESP8266 are not indicated as such on the PCB, and most images only clearly state GPIO0 and GPIO2.
However the ESP826-01 has a a GPIO1 pin (the Tx pin) and a GPIO3 pin (the Rx pin).
i will be using those pins as follows

  • GPIO0 -> SDA pin of the I2C port
  • GPIO1 ->DHT11
  • GPIO2-> SCL pin of the I2C port
  • GPIO3-> OneWire Bus

As my I2C modules already have pull up resistors, I will not add any I2C pullup resistors there. The DS18B20 still needs a pull up resistor for which I used a 4k7, but it is really not that critical, a 10k is also good. The DHT11 supposedly also needs a pull-up resistor but I found it to work without one as well. adding a 4k7 resistor didnt change any of the readings, so I left it out. Many of the 3 pin DHT11 modules, already have a 10 k soldered onto the module.

I just realized that I didnt draw the connections for the OLED. That is because I only hooked it up for a quick check, but should you want to add it, it is just a matter of connecting SDA to SDA and SCL to SCL… and ofcourse the ground and Vcc pins to their counterparts

The program is quite straightforward. First it sets up the libraries and the sensors.
It attaches the DHT11 to pin 1 (Tx) and the OnWire bus for the DS18B20 to pin 3 (Rx). In order to use more than 1 DS18B20 sensor on the OneWire bus, you need to know their ‘unique adress’. If you do not have that then you need a program to read those addresses. Do that on an arduino for ease.

In the program you still have to provide your WiFi credentials as well as the write API for your Thingspeak Channel

 

/*
   Field 1 temp roost (DHT11)
   Field 2 humidity roost (DHT11)
   field 3 Coop temperature (DS18B20)
   field 4 soil temperature (DS18B20)
   field 5 Airpressure (bmp180)
   field 6 Outside temperature (bmp180)
 * */
#include <DHT.h>
#include  <OneWire.h>//  http://www.pjrc.com/teensy/td_libs_OneWire.html
#include <DallasTemperature.h> //   http://milesburton.com/Main_Page?title=Dallas_Tem...
#include <Adafruit_BMP085.h>
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include "SSD1306.h"
SSD1306  display(0x3c, 0, 2);

#define DHTPIN 1  //GPIO1 (Tx)
#define DHTTYPE  DHT11
#define ONE_WIRE_BUS 3 // GPIO3=Rx

const char* ssid     = "YourSSID";
const char* password = "YourPassword";
const char* host = "api.thingspeak.com";
const char* writeAPIKey = "W367812985"; //use YOUR writeApi

//DHT11 stuff
float temperature_buiten;
float temperature_buiten2;
DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHTTYPE, 15);

//DS18b20 stuff
OneWire oneWire(ONE_WIRE_BUS); //oneWire instance to communicate with any OneWire devices
DallasTemperature sensors(&oneWire);// Pass address of our oneWire instance to Dallas Temperature.
DeviceAddress Probe01 = { 0x28, 0x0F, 0x2A, 0x28, 0x00, 0x00, 0x80, 0x9F};
DeviceAddress Probe02 = { 0x28, 0x10, 0xA4, 0x57, 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0xA9};

// bmp180 stuff
Adafruit_BMP085 bmp;

void setup() {
  //I2C stuff
  Wire.pins(0, 2);
  Wire.begin(0, 2);
  // Initialize sensors
  //dht 11 stuff
  dht.begin();
  //ds18b20 stuff
  sensors.begin();//ds18b20
  // set the resolution to 10 bit (Can be 9 to 12 bits .. lower is faster)
  sensors.setResolution(Probe01, 10);
  sensors.setResolution(Probe02, 10);
  //bmp180 stuff
  if (!bmp.begin()) {
    //   Serial.println("No BMP180 / BMP085");
    //   while (1) {}
  }

  //OLED stuff
  display.init();
  display.flipScreenVertically();
  display.setFont(ArialMT_Plain_10);
  delay(1000);

  //  Connect to WiFi network
  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);
  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {
    delay(500);
  }
}

void loop() {
  //ds18b20stuff-------------------
  sensors.requestTemperatures(); // Send the command to get temperatures
  temperature_buiten = sensors.getTempC(Probe01);//
  temperature_buiten2 = sensors.getTempC(Probe02);//
  //dht11 stuff--------------------
  float humidity = dht.readHumidity();
  float temperature = dht.readTemperature();
  if (isnan(humidity) || isnan(temperature)) {
    return;
  }
  //bmp stuff-------------------------
    String t= String(bmp.readTemperature());
    String p=String(bmp.readPressure());
  //OLED stuff--------------------------
  display.clear();
  display.drawString(0,10,p);//bmp pressure
  display.drawString(0,24,String(temperature_buiten));//ds18b20
  display.drawString(0,38,String(humidity));//dht11
  display.display();

  // make TCP connections
  WiFiClient client;
  const int httpPort = 80;
  if (!client.connect(host, httpPort)) {
    return;
  }

  String url = "/update?key=";
  url += writeAPIKey;
  url += "&field1=";
  url += String(temperature);// roost (DHT1)
  url += "&field2=";
  url += String(humidity);// roost (DHT11)
  url += "&field3=";
  url += String(temperature_buiten);//coop temperature (DS18B20 nr 1)
  url += "&field4=";
  url += String(temperature_buiten2); //soil temperature (DS18B29 nr 2)
  url +="&field5=";
  url +=String(bmp.readTemperature());//Outside temperature (BMP180)
  url +="&field6=";
  url +=String(bmp.readPressure());// Airpressure (BMP180)
  url += "\r\n";

  // Send request to the server
  client.print(String("GET ") + url + " HTTP/1.1\r\n" +
               "Host: " + host + "\r\n" +
               "Connection: close\r\n\r\n");

  delay(1000);

}

Currently this program only monitors, but what is to stop you from adding a BH1750 I2C light sensor to measure if it is evening or morning or an RTC to know the time of day and to open and close the door of the coop automatically with aid of a PCF8574 I2C I/O expansion card, or as it is already in the garden, add a PCF8591 or ADS1115 AD converter to measure soil humidity and activate a pump when necessary. Or maybe switching on the water basin heater when the temperature falls below zero
if there is an I2 C chip for it, the ESP8266 can probably use it.

NOTE: the Adafruit DHT library contains an error that may show up in bigger programs on an 8266. If the majority of readings result in “failed to read”, it is time to comment out two erroneous lines in the DHT.cpp file as in the picture below:
adafruiterror

Adding a BMP180 to an ESP8266-01

esp8266-01-bmp180After I added an RTC and an OLED to the ESP8266-01 through I2C, I presumed it should not be too difficult to add a BMP180 as well, in spite of coming across some postings on Internet of people not succeeding.

My BMP180 module -from my Arduino days- was a 5 Volt module, which made me think I may need a level shifter, which would be a pity as the BMP180 is in fact a 3.3V chip.

bmp180-5-33The circuit of my BMP180 module shows that the I2C pull up resistors (4k7) are in fact connected to the 3.3 V line that is provided by a 662k voltage regulator (as was to be expected). This meant that even if I fed the module with 5 Volt, I would not need a level shifter. And as the 662K is a low drop regulator and the BMP 180 also works with voltages lower than 3.3 (1.8-3.6 in fact), I presumed I didn’t need 5 Volt whatsoever.
The connection of the BMP180 is simple Vcc to Vcc, Ground to ground, SDA to SDA and SCL to SCL. On the ESP8266 I am using GPIO0 as SDA and GPIO2 as SCL

BOM

Just some remarks on the BOM

  • ESP8266-01: If you still have to buy this, consider an ESP8266-12. it isn’t much more expensive and has more pins. Some modules like Wemos D1 even have an USB added
  • BMP180: If you still need to buy this, consider a BMP280 that is more precise and cheaper or even a BME280 that can also measure humidity. The BME280 is slightly more expensive. I have not been able to test it, but the BMP280 needs a different library and the BME280 needs a different library.
  • Adafruit BMP_085 Library: This is the ‘Old’ library. Adafruit has a newer one that I found less pleasant to work with and I seem to remember it also needed the Adafruit ‘unified sensor’ library. There is a Sparkfun library as well
  • The female and male headers and the piece of veroboard are used to make a breadboard friendly adapter for the ESP8266-01
  • If you dont have a 3.3 Volt USB-TTL adapter yet and are only planning to work with the ESP8266-01, consider this handy device.
  • The OLED is just used to display the values. Ofcourse you may use an LCD as well, or forget about the display and send it off to a website or Thingspeak

esp8266-01-bmp180-circuitThe connections couldn’t be simpler:
I used GPIO0 as SDA and GPIO2 as SCL. The BMP180 and OLED have the pin nominations clearly stamped on them so you only need to connect as follows All Vcc-s together All Grounds together BMP180 and OLED SDA pins to GPIO0 BMP180 and OLED SCL pins to GPIO2 Finally connect the CH_PD pin with Vcc Make sure you identify the proper pins. Your modules may have a pin sequence that differs from mine. As my BMP180 module already had pull up resistors, I didnt need to add those. If your module does not, add 4k7 resistors as pull up on the SDA and SCL lines.

I presume you do know how to program the ESP8266. In short:
Connect Tx<->Rx (meaning the Tx of your ESP to the Rx of your USB-TTL converter)
Connect Rx<->Tx
Connect CH_PD<->Vcc
Connect GPIO0 <->Grnd
Connect Vcc <-> Vcc (Only if you have a 3.3 volt Vcc)
Connect Grnd <-> Grnd

#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_BMP085.h>
#include "SSD1306.h"
Adafruit_BMP085 bmp;
SSD1306  display(0x3c, 0, 2);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Wire.pins(0, 2);
  Wire.begin(0, 2);
  if (!bmp.begin()) {
    //   Serial.println("No BMP180 / BMP085");// we dont wait for this
    //   while (1) {}
  }
  display.init();
  display.flipScreenVertically();// I turn the screen coz easier in my setup
  display.setFont(ArialMT_Plain_10);
}

void loop() {
  display.clear();
  display.setTextAlignment(TEXT_ALIGN_LEFT);
  display.setFont(ArialMT_Plain_16);


  String t = "T=" + String(bmp.readTemperature()) + " *C";
  String p = "P=" + String(bmp.readPressure()) + " Pa";
  String a = "A=" + String(bmp.readAltitude(103000)) + " m";// insert pressure at sea level
  String s= "S="+ String(bmp.readSealevelpressure(30))+" Pa";// or insert your atltitude 
  display.drawString(0, 10, t);
  display.drawString(0, 24, p);
  display.drawString(0, 38, a);
  //display.drawString(0, 38, s);// if you want to calculate sealevelpressure
  // write the buffer to the display
  display.display();
  delay(2000);
}

As you can see, one of the parameters is the Altitude. This value is only correct if you supply the program with the pressure at sea level for your location. As that pressure can change, it is not of real value. On the other hand, as the altitude or elevation is much less likely to change (unless you are mobile), you could provide the known elevation for your location and then back calculate the pressure at sea level. Or… given the fact you have a WiFi processor available, read the current pressure at sea level from a web site and then calculate your altitude.

The temperature readings of the BMP180, though precise, still can be off (too high) if the sensor is mounted too close to the ESP8266. Whether this is a result of the HF radio waves or just direct heat of the processor is still being argued. I think it is the latter